Spinal stenosis , ear infection, and hydrocephalus are common. Other causes of dwarfism are spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita , diastrophic dysplasia , pseudoachondroplasia , hypochondroplasia , Noonan syndrome , primordial dwarfism , Turner syndrome , osteogenesis imperfecta OI , and hypothyroidism. Short stature is a common replacement of the term 'dwarfism', especially in a medical context. These types of dwarfism are indirect consequences of the generally unhealthy or malnourished condition of the individual, and not of any specific disease. Other common attributes of dwarfism such as bowed knees and unusually short fingers can lead to back problems, and difficulty in walking and handling objects. If this hormone is lacking, stunted or even halted growth may become apparent. In most cases of skeletal dysplasia, such as achondroplasia, mental function is not impaired. In case of spinal dysostosis , one has a small trunk, with average-sized limbs.
There may be long periods without any significant growth. Dwarfism is usually caused by a genetic variant; achondroplasia is caused by a mutation on chromosome 4. Children with dwarfism are particularly vulnerable to teasing and ridicule from classmates. If dwarfism is caused by a medical disorder, the person is referred to by the underlying diagnosed disorder. Growth hormone deficiency has no single definite cause. In case of spinal dysostosis , one has a small trunk, with average-sized limbs. Other causes of dwarfism are spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita , diastrophic dysplasia , pseudoachondroplasia , hypochondroplasia , Noonan syndrome , primordial dwarfism , Turner syndrome , osteogenesis imperfecta OI , and hypothyroidism. If a pair of achondroplasia alleles are present, the result is fatal. Severe shortness with skeletal distortion also occurs in several of the Mucopolysaccharidoses and other storage disorders. This dwarfism type is caused by an endocrine disorder and not a skeletal dysplasia. Unless the brain is directly affected by the underlying disorder, there is little to no chance of mental impairment that can be attributed to dwarfism. Because dwarfism is relatively uncommon, children may feel isolated from their peers. There is a wide range of physical characteristics. Severe shortness is associated with lower income. Harsh environmental conditions, such as malnutrition, may also produce dwarfism. If this hormone is lacking, stunted or even halted growth may become apparent. Many involve joint pain caused by abnormal bone alignment, or from nerve compression. Other common attributes of dwarfism such as bowed knees and unusually short fingers can lead to back problems, and difficulty in walking and handling objects. Physical effects of malformed bones vary according to the specific disease. Growth hormone, also called somatotropin , is a polypeptide hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction. Some forms of dwarfism are associated with disordered function of other organs, such as the brain or liver , sometimes severely enough to be more of an impairment than the unusual bone growth. Skeletal dysplasia is usually suspected because of obvious physical features e. Children with this disorder may grow slowly and puberty may be delayed by several years or indefinitely. Laron syndrome growth hormone insensitivity is another cause. Achondroplasia is a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3. Those with growth hormone issues tend to be proportionate.
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